Certain antibodies that pass through the placenta are associated with the improved survival of infants who acquire HIV through nursing. A Kenya-based study observed that preexisting antibodies that target a region of a protein on HIV's surface were correlated with delayed HIV acquisition in infants exposed to the virus as well as a lower amount of virus circulating in the blood of infants who acquired HIV.
The route a pathogen takes in causing infection can determine the severity of disease. NIAID scientists are looking at metabolism to determine how and why there is a difference.
Earlier this month, the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine was awarded to Drew Weissman, M.D., Ph.D., and Katalin Karikó, Ph.D., for their groundbreaking, decades-long work on messenger RNA (mRNA) that enabled the unprecedented rapid development of the mRNA vaccines that stemmed the COVID-19 pandemic. Both Nobel laureates have connections to the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and the NIH.
NIAID Workshop Examines Connection between Maternal, Fetal Immune Systems and Improving Reproductive Health
In July, NIAID hosted a workshop of technology developers, immunologists, maternal health researchers and clinicians to explore the importance and challenges of measuring, predicting and improving reproductive health in the context of maternal and fetal immune systems.
It’s a finding perfect for spooky season—inside a bloodsucking insect, a parasite uses the blood of mammals to get more fit to infect unsuspecting people. In this case, the story is more troubling because it’s a real threat. The parasite is Leishmania, which causes leishmaniasis, a primarily tropical and subtropical disease that can cause skin lesions and organ damage, and can be fatal.
A special Oct. 19 supplement to the Journal of Infectious Diseases contains nine articles intended as a summary of a National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)-hosted pandemic preparedness workshop that featured scientific experts on viral families of pandemic concern.
NIAID scientists and colleagues have identified a cause of COVID-induced lung fibrosis, a severe and often fatal result of COVID-19 that leaves lungs scarred, clotted and leathery, and patients struggling to breathe.
NIAID launched the STOMP trial to determine whether the antiviral drug tecovirimat can safely and effectively treat mpox. Watch Dr. Cyrus Javan of NIAID's Division of AIDS explain the importance of the STOMP trial.
NIAID researchers used structural information about two malaria parasite proteins along with mechanistic information about the interaction between them to design and build an entirely novel candidate vaccine. When tested in rats, their “structure-based design 1” (SBD1) immunogen vaccine performed better than other experimental malaria vaccines. It also upends the conventional wisdom that successful vaccines must elicit receptor-blocking antibodies.
In children with cerebral malaria, brain swelling can cause seizures, coma, and death. Researchers from NIAID and their colleagues studied children with cerebral malaria in Malawi to better understand the underlying causes of these devastating symptoms.
HPAI Influenza Devastating Birds, Marine Mammals in Peru--Study Identifies Concerning Viral Mutations
NIAID-funded researchers working in Peru have signaled concern about the deaths of birds and marine mammals from highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) that has been spreading globally.
With ticks expanding their territories in many parts of the world, a NIAID research group has likewise expanded its promising vaccine research to two typically rare pathogens with potential for public health importance -- Kyasanur Forest disease and Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever.
Syphilis, a common sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the bacteria Treponema pallidum, can result in adult neurological and organ damage, as well as congenital abnormalities, stillbirths, and neonatal deaths. More research is urgently needed to diversify the diagnostic, preventive, and therapeutic options available to alter the course of the public health threat of syphilis. NIAID supports research to address these areas including studies featured at the recent STI & HIV World Congress in Chicago.
SARS-CoV-2 evolves three times faster in white-tailed deer than in people, making NIAID-funded scientists at The Ohio State University and colleagues ask whether deer are an important reservoir for emerging virus variants.
A new NIAID-funded study shows how inconsistent malaria control measures in East Africa could be aiding the emergence of drug-resistant mutations in the primary parasite that causes malaria.
On this World Photo Day, we explore colorized microscopy images with NIAID microscopist John Bernbaum and visual specialist Julie Marquardt.
World Mosquito Day 2023—How Mathematical Modeling Reveals the Link Between Climate Change and Mosquito-Borne Diseases
As global temperatures rise, it has become more urgent to understand the interactions between climate, mosquitoes, and the pathogens mosquitoes transmit to humans. NIAID Now spoke to Luis Chaves, Ph.D., a 2023 Scholar with the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Climate Change and Health Initiative, about his work about the impacts of environmental change on the ecology of insect vectors and the diseases they transmit.
NIAID researchers used mice to investigate a possible relationship between parasitic worm infection and resistance to severe COVID-19.
A team of vaccine production experts from South Africa recently finished training with NIAID Vaccine Research Center scientists. Their objective: to globally produce vaccines against a list of troubling infectious diseases.
Study Examines the Association of Frailty, Age, and Biological Sex with COVID-19 Vaccine–Induced Immunity in Older Adults
Older adults were disproportionately affected during the COVID-19 pandemic, and while many vaccine clinical trials included older adults, they failed to include those who were particularly old or frail. Immunosenescence, or the process of declining immune function with age, greatly affects susceptibility to infections. Evidence suggests that the effects of aging on the immune system differs...
Viral hepatitis is an inflammatory liver disease caused by infection with any of the known hepatitis viruses—A, B, C, D, and E. Most of the global viral hepatitis burden is from hepatitis B and C, which affect 354 million people and result in 1.1 million deaths annually. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that in 2020 there were 14,000 and 50,300 new acute infections of...
As the International AIDS Society’s 12th Conference on HIV Science (IAS 2023) conference drew to a close on Wednesday, HIV.gov continued our conversations about the latest research being presented, with updates on post-exposure prophylaxis for STIs (Doxy-PEP), implementation of HIV PrEP, and the effectiveness of U=U.
This blog is cross-posted from HIV.gov.
On Tuesday at the International AIDS Society’s 12th Conference on HIV Science (IAS 2023), HIV.gov continued our conversations about research highlights, including a focus on the latest about HIV vaccines. We also heard an update from the NIH Office of AIDS Research.
NIH’s Carl Dieffenbach, Ph.D., Director of the Division of AIDS at the National Institute...
The International AIDS Society’s 12th Conference on HIV Science (IAS 2023) opened Sunday, with thousands of scientists, policy leaders, and advocates gathered to present and discuss the latest advances in HIV research. HIV.gov’s coverage of the conference began with two video conversations looking ahead to the exciting research that will be presented.
IAS Conference Highlights—Heart Disease Prevention for People with HIV, Long-acting HIV Prevention and Treatment
During the first full day of sessions at the International AIDS Society’s 12th Conference on HIV Science (IAS 2023), HIV.gov shared conversations on important study findings about reducing cardiovascular disease among people with HIV and the latest developments with long-acting prevention and treatment options that could one day become safe and effective alternatives to daily oral pills.