We thank Daniel Lednicer and Barbara Harkins for research assistance, as well as Betty Murgolo and the staff of the NIH Library; the staff of the History of Medicine Division, National Library of Medicine, NIH; the staff of the U.S. Library of Congress; the staff of the Bentley Historical Library, University of Michigan; and Eva Åhrén, Laurie K. Doepel, Gregory K. Folkers, Hillery A. Harvey, Joseph Kinyoun Houts, Jr., and Warren Winkelstein for helpful discussion and review. Information contained in this manuscript was presented in part at annual meetings of the American Epidemiological Society (26 March 2009 and 29 March 2012) and The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (19 November 2009).

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